HEAT STROKE (SUNSTROKE)

Overheating or a heat stroke occur when the environment's temperature is high and are aggravated by excessive humidity.

Heat stroke. A rapidly developing unhealthy condition caused by the body's overheating as a result of its prolonged exposure to the environment's high temperatures. Overheating may result from the exposure of the patient's head to straight sunlight (sunstroke).

People suffering from cardiac diseases, atherosclerosis, hypertention, heart disease, obesity, endocrinic disorders and vascular dystonia are especially susceptible to overheating.

The newborn and children under 1 year old are liable to overheating.

Overheating symptoms are aggravated by excessive humidity of the environment.

SYMPTOMS

The light degree:

  • general weakness;
  • headache;
  • nausea;
  • rapid pulse and breathing;
  • pupil dilatation.

Measures to be taken: to remove the patient from the zone of overheating, to give help (see Chapter «First Aid»).

The medium degree:

  • sharp adynamis;
  • splitting headache with nausea and vomit;
  • disorientation;
  • movements uncertainty;
  • wabbling;
  • recurrent faints;
  • rapid pulse and breathing;
  • the bodys temperature as high as 39 - 40 C.

The overheating grave condition develops suddenly.
The face is hyperemic, later it becomes cyanotically pale. Sometimes there could be observed cases of change of consciousness from a light form to coma, clonic and tonic convulsions, delirium, hallucinations, temperature running as gigh as 41-42 C, sudden death. The lethal outcome amount to 20 — 30%.

FIRST AID

Urgent! Eliminate exposure to heat!

  • remove the patient from the zone of overheating;
  • put the patient on an open ground in the shadow;
  • make the patient inhale liquid ammonia evaporation from a little piece of cotton wool;
  • take off the outerwear;
  • moissturise the face with cold water, patting the chest with a damp towel;
  • put an ice bag on the head;
  • fan frequently;
  • call an ambulance.

PROPHYLAXIS

On hot humid days it is advisable to stay in the open air before 10 or 11 o'clock in the morning, later it is possible to stay in the green zone under the trees.

When leaving the house, wear a hat.

Put off basic meals untill evening hours.

Instead of water you may have acidified or sweetened tea, rice or cherry water, bread kvass.

Restrict fat and protein food.

Do not drink any alcohol.

Wear light loose-fitting cotton clothes to allow constant perspiration.

Do not overuse cosmetics and creams preventing the skin's normal functionning.

CHILDREN HAVING A SUNSTROKE

Symptoms.

General weakness, faint, unconscious state, nausea, vomit, high temperature, rapid weak pulse, nasal bleeding.

Firs aid.

Place the patient in the shadow in the open air, undress. Cool drink, cold compress on the head, sponge-down of the body with cool water. Inhalation of liquid ammonia evaporation from a little piece of cotton wool. Ambulance call.

Prophylaxis.

Wals before 11 o'clock wearing a hat (obligatory). Light cotton clothes. Refrain from staying in the sunlight for a long time. Restrict extra physical load (competitions, long passages). Exclude emotional tension. Eat vegetable and fruit meals, restrict fat food and excessive meat food. Drink up to 1,5-2 litres of liquid: cool tea, fruit water, juice, kvass.

CHILDREN UNDER 1 ARE LIABLE TO OVERHEATING

Excessive wrapping, synthetic clothes, prolonged periods of the environment's high temperature, exposure to the sunlight may lead to a child's overheating.

Symptoms.

Children under 1 and babies develop serious overheating symptoms more frequently. First the face gets hyperemic, then it goes pale. The child is agitated, then gets dull. Cold sweat break out, sometimes there is yawning, belching, nausea, defecation disorder. Facial muscles as well as extremities' spasmodic twitching is also possible.

The child is placed in the shadow, undressed and is spnnged down with cold water. You can let him/her inhale liquid ammonia evaporation from a little piece of cotton wool. Small portions of cool drink, frequently.

Heat stroke prophylaxis.

During the spells of hot humid weather:

Walks in the green zone in the light shadow in the morning (before 11) and in the evening after the sunset. Cotton clothes, a hat is obligatory.

Meals in accordance with the age. In the case of children under 1 it is not advisable to introduce new food. Liquid intake - 1,5 or twice as much as usual.

Daily cool baths.

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